Russia, Novgorodskaya oblast'

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Amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials

PC "MSTATOR" produces strips of amorphous and nanocrystalline AMAG alloys with a thickness of 17 to 25 microns (specified by the customer, for example: 18 ±2 microns) and widths of 20, 25, 30 mm in the original version after spinning.

Using the existing cutting equipment, PC "MSTATOR" supplies ribbon according to customer requirements with a width of 0.7 to 30 mm.

Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials possess a promising combination of high magnetic, electrical, and mechanical properties. The ordered arrangement of atoms in these materials exists only in the short-range order.

This amorphous state is formed at a high rate of cooling (quenching) of the metal melt, while the atoms do not have time to form a crystal lattice.






Properties of nanocrystalline ribbons

(after corresponding thermomagnetic treatment)

Alloy properties
Saturation induction B10, T 1,05*** 1,2 1,16 1,2 1,2 1,25 1,3
Coercitive force Hc, A/m 2,0 0,8 0,8 1,5 2,0 3,2 3,2
Permeability µ @ 10 kHz * 190÷250









3000÷8000 1600÷3000
Crystallization temperature Tcr, °C 450 515 515 515 515 510 500
Curie temperature Tc, °C кр 570 560 - - - кр
Density γ, g/cm3 7,8 7,3 7,3 7,3 7,4 7,6 7,7
Squareness ratio, no more than * 0,01 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,05 0,05 0,01
Squareness ratio, at least ** - 0,9 0,9 - - - -

Core specific loss, W/kg @ 0.2T:
10 kHz
100 kHz





















Saturation magnetostriction λs, ×10-6 - 2 0,5 3 4,5 8 8

Russian and foreign compatible alloys (Vitroperm – Vacuumschmelze, Nanoperm – Magnetec, Finemet – Hitachi Metals)

Vitroperm 500F
Vitroperm 550 HF
Vitroperm 800
FT-3K (Finemet)
FT-3TL (Finemet)
Vitroperm 270F
Vitroperm 712F
FT-3TL (Finemet)
Vitroperm 250F
FT-8K (Finemet)
Vitroperm 220F
Nanoperm LM
* thermal treatment in transverse magnetic field
** thermal treatment in longitudinal magnetic field
*** @ H=7200 A/m


Properties of amorphous ribbons based on cobalt

(after corresponding thermomagnetic treatment)

Alloy properties AMAG
Saturation induction B10, T 1,0 0,9 0,85 0,75 0,68 0,66 0,60 0,55
Coercitive force Hc, A/m 4,0 2,0 1,6 1,2 0,24 0,24 0,24 0,16
Relative permeability µ @ 10 kHz * 1400 2200 3300 10000 35000 50000 70000 120000
Max. permeability, µ max, ×103 ** - - - 500 - 800 1000 1200
Core specific loss, W/kg @ 0.2T:
10 kHz
100 kHz
Crystallization temperature Tcr, °C 450 470 485 515 505 510 520 530
Curie temperature, Tc, °C ≥ Ткр. 430 380 350 275 265 235 200
Density γ, g/cm3 7,9 7,85 7,8 7,7 7,8 7,8 7,7 7,7
Squareness ratio, no more than * 0,02 0,03 0,03 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,10 0,20
Squareness ratio, at least ** 0,95 0,95 0,95 0,9 0,9 0,9 0,9 0,9
Saturation magnetostriction λs, ×10-6 0,05 0,05 0,05 1,0 0,1 0,2 -0,1 0,1
Russian and foreign compatible alloys
(VAC – Vacuumschmelze, MG – Metglass)
VAC6150 VAC6030 VAC6030
- -



 * thermal treatment in transverse magnetic field
 ** thermal treatment in longitudinal magnetic field


Properties of amorphous ribbons based on iron-nickel

(after thermomagnetic treatment in a transverse field)

Alloy properties AMAG 202 AMAG 223 AMAG 225* AMAG 245* AMAG 254**
Saturation induction B10, T 1,4 1,32 1,10 0,83 0,83
Коэффициент прямоугольности Кп, не более 0,1 0,03 0,05 0,10 0,05
Coercitive force Hc, A/m 4,0 5,0 3,2 1,5 8,0
Permeability µ @ 10 kHz 5000 1800 6000 8000 1500
Crystallization temperature Tcr, °C 520 425 485 480 400
Curie temperature Tc, °C 380 ≥Ткр 390 290 ≥Ткр
Density γ, g/cm3 7,3 7,4 7,4 7,5 7,9
Russian and foreign compatible alloys
(VAC – Vacuumschmelze, MG – Metglass)



  * AMAG225 and AMAG245 alloyes is used in low-temperature (infrared) electric heaters. It’s specific electrical resistivity ρ = 1,3~1,35 µΩ×m. Nominal resistance for 1 m long 10 mm wide ribbon is 8.5 ±1.0 Ω.
  ** AMAG254 alloy is used in acousto-magnetic anti-theft tags (sensors).


Properties of amorphous ribbons based on iron and iron-cobalt

(after thermomagnetic treatment in a transverse field)

Alloy properties AMAG 321 AMAG 324 AMAG 492
Saturation induction B10, T 1,80 1,55 1,56
Squareness ratio, no more than 0,25 0,03 0,20
Coercitive force Hc, A/m 30,0 4,0 8,0
Permeability µ @ 10 kHz 300 1700 5000
Crystallization temperature Tcr, °C 400 520 500
Curie temperature Tc, °C ≥Ткр ≥Ткр 380
Density γ, g/cm3 7,6 7,6 7,3
Russian and foreign compatible alloys
(VAC – Vacuumschmelze, MG – Metglass)


List of metal alloyes of PC "MSTATOR"


(Russia, Borovichi town)



AMAG 170, AMAG 172, AMAG 179, AMAG 180, AMAG 183, AMAG 186А, AMAG 186В, AMAG 186С, AMAG 202, AMAG 223, AMAG 225, AMAG 245, AMAG 254, AMAG 321, AMAG 324, AMAG 492



AMAG 178N, AMAG 200, AMAG 200С, AMAG 201N, AMAG 204N, AMAG 211N, AMAG 212N


AMAG alloys ("MSTATOR") have similar properties to materials:





ГМ440, ГМ501, ГМ503, ГМ515



ГМ412, ГМ414

Ashinsky Metallurgical Plant






Hitachi  (Japan)

Metglas®, Inc. (USA)

Metglas (MG)


MG2605SA1, MG2605CO, MG2605S3A, MG2705M, MG2714, MG2826MB,

2826MB3, 2605 SC, AHEF-1  

Finemet (FT)


FT-3KM, FT-3KL, FT-3AM, FT-3SH, FT-3K50T, FT-8K50D, FT-3TL, FT-3W 





VAC4040, VAC6025, VAC6030, VAC6070,VAC6080, VAC6125, VAC6150, VAC7505, VAC7600



Vitroperm 220 F, Vitroperm 250 F, Vitroperm 270 F, Vitroperm 500 F, Vitroperm 550 HF, Vitroperm 712 F, Vitroperm 800





Nanoperm, Nanoperm LM

China   1k101, 1k107

Regardless of the application, when using amorphous and nanocrystalline cores in the design of inductive components, the following advantages are usually provided:

  •      Reduced weight;
  •      Reduced copper losses due to fewer turns;
  •      Extended temperature range from -60 to 125 ºС;
  •      Increased stability of properties and reliability;
  •      High precision for measuring devices;
  •      Improving the efficiency of the device.


Comparative characteristics of amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials relative to traditional ones



Electrical steel Permalloy
Amorphous Nanocrystalline
50 Ni 80 Ni Co-based Fe-based Fe-based
Magnetic induction amplitude, Bm (T) 2,0 1,55 0,74 0,5 0,6 1,56 1,16
Coercitive force, Hc (Oe) 0,5 0,15 0,03 0,1 0,003 0,03 0,01
Initial permeability, µi 1500 6000 40000 3000 70000 5000 70 000
Max. permeability, µm 20000 60000 200000 6000 1000000 50000 600 000
Specific resistance, p (µOhm/cm) 50 30 60 1000000 130 130 130
Curie temperature, Тс (°C) 750 500 500 140 235 415 560
Crystallization temperature, Тx (°C) - - - - 520 550 515
Max. operating temterature, Т (°C)       100 90 150 180
Optimal frequency range, f (kHz) 0...1 0...10 10... 10...100000

The rapid development of modern electronics has led to the emergence of new soft magnetic materials that are widely used in matching, high-frequency and power transformers, transformer current sensors, EMI filters, measuring equipment, data transmission systems (Ethernet), etc.


The most demanded areas of application of AMAG ribbons



Advantages in a number of characteristics compared to traditionally used ferrites, electrical steel and permalloy.
Acoustomagnetic and electromagnetic labels

The detection rate of the label (transponder) is up to 90-95%. Attempts to deceive the anti-theft system are doomed to failure.
Magnetic shield

High efficiency of shielding due to the special electromagnetic properties of the material and low sensitivity to mechanical damage.



Currently, amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials are used in various industries:

  •     In telecommunication systems. Transformers and chokes ISDN, DSL, PLC.
  •     In the electrical industry, replacing conventional transformer steel with an amorphous alloy provides energy savings in eddy currents.
  •     In residual current devices (RCDs), controlled by differential current, designed to protect people from electric shock, including when using household electrical equipment. High permeability provides good sensitivity, low response threshold and good accuracy.
  •     In solar generators.
  •     In highly efficient electromagnetic shields. Low-temperature annealing makes it possible to obtain high magnetic permeability while maintaining high plasticity of the tape. They are used for shielding special rooms with sensitive equipment, shielding sensitive units of equipment, shielding cables (cables are wrapped with tape), etc.
  •     In electrical engineering - current transformers, electronic electricity meters. The use of nanocrystalline materials in current transformers increases the measurement accuracy, eliminates dependence on the shape and symmetry of the load current, and provides an accuracy class of 0.2.
  •     In EMC / EMI filters for switched power supplies (SMPS) and inverter drives. They have a higher interference suppression ratio in a wide frequency range.
  •     In switching power supplies, inverters, in AC / DC and DC / DC converters. The new materials provide high reliability, high efficiency, small dimensions and weight, and low noise level.
  •     In chokes of magnetic amplifiers. Small size, low control current, low loss.
  •     In high frequency power transformers and chokes. Low losses and high operating temperatures allow for size reduction.
  •     In power factor corrector chokes. Low losses and small dimensions.
  •     In modern power sources for electric welding. Low weight of devices, wide temperature range, the ability to work with a stable constant current. Ease of mode regulation, versatility.
  •     In battery chargers. Small dimensions, automatic shutdown, work according to the optimal program, multi-channel chargers.
  •     In industrial ballasts. Reliability, low weight, tough operating conditions.
  •     In audio and video equipment for the manufacture of magnetic heads for high-frequency high-density recording
  •     In tube amplifiers of Hi-End audio equipment for the manufacture of output audio transformers.
  •     The high radiation and corrosion resistance of amorphous materials allows them to be used as amorphous copper-based brazing alloys for joining units of nuclear and thermonuclear reactors in nuclear technology.
  •     In sensors of anti-theft devices of electromagnetic and acoustomagnetic types.
  •     The high resistivity of amorphous materials allows them to be used as resistive elements in efficient low-temperature (infrared) tape heaters with a surface utilization rate of up to 95%. They are used in cars (heating of seats, heating of fuel lines, batteries), in construction (underfloor heating, ceilings, new heating systems), in agriculture (local heating of premises in animal husbandry, heating of hives, greenhouses, incubators, etc.).
  •     In absorbers of short voltage / current surges (interference suppression magnetic circuits). They are put on the leads of the components. Eliminate the cause of interference by changing the switching behavior.
  •     Automotive applications: power supplies, flexible magnetic antennas, interference suppression chokes, etc.

Amorphous soft magnetic alloys

Amorphous alloys are a new special class of precision alloys that differ from crystalline alloys in structure, manufacturing method, region of existence on the temperature-time diagram and properties.

In the 60s, experiments on the rapid cooling of metal melts, which were carried out in order to obtain a submicroscopic metal structure, found that in some cases the crystal lattice in the metal is completely absent, and the arrangement of atoms is characteristic of a structureless, amorphous body. The structure of amorphous alloys is similar to the structure of a frozen liquid and is characterized by the absence of long-range order in the arrangement of atoms. It turned out that the amorphous metal has completely different, not similar properties to the crystalline metal. It becomes several times stronger, its resistance to corrosion increases, its electromagnetic characteristics change, and even one of the most stable constants - the modulus of elasticity. Unlike alloys with a crystalline structure, the production technology of which has serious problems associated with the antagonism of the properties of the components at the crystallization stage, in amorphous alloys all the necessary components are perfectly combined and coexist. With ultrafast cooling, the alloy solidifies before the antagonist components have time to show their antagonism. This opens up the broadest possibilities of finding the optimal combinations of components to obtain specific properties. Amorphous alloys are called metallic glasses. Interest in them is growing rapidly.

First of all, researchers were interested in the ferromagnetic properties of alloys based on iron, nickel and cobalt. The soft magnetic properties of metal glasses generally turned out to be better than the properties of permalloy, moreover, these properties are more stable. The amorphous state of the alloys is achieved by selecting the chemical composition and using a special technology for cooling from the melt at a rate higher than the critical one determined for each composition. The absence of dislocations leads to the fact that metal glasses are superior in strength to the best alloyed steels. Their high hardness results in excellent wear resistance. Another major advantage of amorphous metal alloys is their extremely high corrosion resistance. In many highly corrosive environments (sea water, acids), metal glasses do not corrode at all. For example, the corrosion rate of an amorphous alloy containing iron, nickel and chromium in a hydrochloric acid solution is practically zero. Apparently, the main reason for such a high corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys is that, having no crystal lattice, they are devoid of characteristic crystal "defects" - dislocations and, most importantly, grain boundaries. The high packing density of atoms in the crystal near these "defects" decreases so sharply that along them "enemy agents" can easily penetrate into the metal. It is important that the defect-free structure of the amorphous alloy is imparted to that thin oxide film that forms on its surface at the initial stages of the corrosion process and further protects the metal from direct contact with the "aggressor". The specificity of the technologies allows the production of amorphous alloys in the form of ribbons less than 40 microns thick.

For the manufacture of amorphous alloys in the form of strips, a cooling method is usually used, in which a jet of liquid metal is directed at a certain speed onto the surface of a rapidly rotating cylinder made of a material with high thermal conductivity. A microwire with an amorphous structure is made by melting a metal enclosed in a glass tube with a conical bottom by high-frequency currents, drawing out and cooling a thin capillary filled with metal. When heated, amorphous alloys transform into a crystalline state. For the stable operation of products made of amorphous alloys, it is necessary that their temperature does not exceed the maximum operating temperature for each alloy (T work max). Currently, the most widespread are soft magnetic amorphous alloys, which combine high magnetic and mechanical properties. Soft magnetic amorphous alloys - ferromagnetic alloys with a narrow hysteresis loop. A feature of soft magnetic amorphous alloys in comparison with crystalline ones is a large (about 20%) content of nonmagnetic elements, such as boron, silicon, carbon, phosphorus, etc., necessary to preserve the amorphous structure. The presence of these elements reduces the maximum saturation induction in amorphous alloys in comparison with crystalline ones and increases the temperature coefficient of magnetic properties. The same elements increase the electrical resistance, increase the hardness and strength of amorphous alloys, as well as their corrosion resistance. Since the beginning of the eighties, amorphous materials have been widely used in radio and electrical products, which are used instead of permalloy, ferrites, electrical steels, and magnetodielectrics.


Nanocrystalline magnetic alloys

The second representative of a new class of metastable fast-cooled alloys and an active rival of amorphous alloys are nanocrystalline alloys. Their feature is an ultrafine crystalline structure. The size of crystals (nanoparticles) in these alloys ranges from 1 to 10 nm. Nanocrystalline and amorphous alloys are the closest relatives. Their "relationship" is based on two circumstances. The first is structural similarity. As is known, the structure of amorphous alloys has a short-range order, i.e., it consists of ordered microgroups of atoms, the sizes of which are close to the sizes of nanograins of nanocrystalline alloys. Secondly, it is the production technology. Currently, the most widespread method for obtaining a nanostructure is controlled crystallization from the initial amorphous state.

Thus, the amorphous alloy is the "parent" base of the nanocrystalline alloy.

The structure of a nanocrystalline alloy is a two-phase system, one of the phases of which are nanocrystals, and the other is a residual amorphous matrix. The properties of a nanoalloy depend on the composition, size, and amount of nanocrystals, as well as their relationship to the amorphous phase. Silicon and iron are the basis of economical raw materials. Having a high saturation induction (1.2 T), good temperature stability in a wide temperature range from -60 to +180 ° C, the new nanocrystalline material has excellent characteristics in the high-frequency region at the level of amorphous cobalt-based alloys. Moreover, the new alloy is much more economical.

Precise control of the parameters of annealing of toroids wound from a ribbon allows one to regulate the required material properties (for example, the shape of the hysteresis loop, the level of magnetic permeability, the squareness coefficient, and specific losses) over a wide range. At the same time, good quality at an affordable price is becoming an increasingly important indicator of the competitiveness of nanocrystalline material in comparison with ferrites and permalloy.


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